WASHINGTON (AP) – Nearly a year in space, the astronaut's immune system, Scott Kelly, was in high condition and changed the activity of some of its genes compared to its identical twin, connected with the Earth, researchers say. Knowing whether the changes were good or bad, but the results of a unique NASA twin study are causing new questions to doctors, as the space agency intends to send people to MARS – issues that are already pressing issues like, for example, how to protect against too high levels of radiation
Tests for genetic doubling gave scientists the opportunity to never track details of human biology, for example, as the astronaut genes are turned on and off in space other than at home. One of the mysterious changes announced today at a scientific conference: Kelly's immune system was overactive. New York Medical College, Weil Cornell, who helped lead the study. He said that doctors are now looking for it from other astronauts.
From the beginning of the NASA space exploration, he studied the matter on astronaut's bodies, for example, the loss of bone mass, which requires exercises to counteract. As a rule, they are in space for about six months. Kelly, who lived at the International Space Station, spent 340 days in space and set a record for the United States.
"I have never felt absolutely normal in space," said now retired Kelly in The Associated Press, referring to a simple overload from fluid transmissions, headaches and difficulty with carbon dioxide concentration, and complaints about digestion from microgravity. for comparison. Full results have not yet been published, but researchers presented some conclusions at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
. It's not a change in DNA, but what is called "gene expression" as genes turn off and include and increase or decrease their protein production. Mason also noticed a splash in the blood of another marker that triggers the immune system. But at the same time Kelly's blood showed a smaller number of other types of cells, which is an early protection against viruses.
It is not surprising that the activity of the gene changes in space ̵
You can see how the body adapts to changes in its environment, "Mason said.
Good news: Most of all returned to normal shortly after Kelly returned to Earth in March 2016. "This memory or this need to be almost on high alert," even six months later, said Mason.
"It's generally encouraging," said Craig Kundroth, who heads space life and scientific research for NASA. "There are no new warning characters. We see changes that we are not necessarily expecting, but they do not know if these changes are a consequence.
Of the four Russians living in space for more than a year, NASA already knew that it was possible for a long time from Earth, Kundroth said, adding: "We also strive for more than just possible. We want our astronauts to do more than just survive. "
In the end, the study of twins gives NASA a directory of things that follow future missions to see if other astronauts react alike. Astronauts on future missions will be able to perform some of these tests in space instead of freezing samples for scientists at home, Mason said. Russian space station Mir. He said that he had never been ill in orbit, but as soon as he returned to Earth, "I was probably more ill than I was in my life."
Astronauts launch into their orbit their own microbes and are exposed to the microbes of their crew members, and then, a week later, nothing new in the "very sterile environment" of the space station "your immune system is not actually challenged," said Linger.
A human mission to Mars, which NASA hopes to launch in the 2030s, said Kundroto  for 30 months, including time on the surface. The mission will put cosmonauts at the level of galactic cosmic radiation higher than NASA's own safety standard. On the Earth and even at the space station, the earth's magnetic field protects cosmonauts from a large amount of radiation. On the way to Mars and back there would be no such protection, but tunnels or dirt residencies could have helped a bit on Mars, said Cunroot
Kelly, who is 55 weeks old, said he would go to Mars. He said that the long-term trip "would not be worse than I felt. Maybe it's better. I think that a huge physical challenge, a side effect of radiation, will be a mission where you have been in space for many years." AP is fully responsible. for all content.