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What exactly is the black hole events horizon (and what's going on there)?



On Wednesday (April 10th), the project of the International Event Horizon telescope released its first results from its black hole plan. But what is the horizon of events?

The Black Horizon Event horizon is related to the speed of the object's output – the speed that needs to be exceeded to avoid the gravity of the black hole. The closer someone came to the black hole, the more speed they will need to avoid this massive gravity. The horizons of events are a threshold around a black hole, where the exit speed exceeds the speed of light. According to Einstein's theory of a special theory of relativity nothing can move faster through space than the speed of light. This means that the black hole events horizon is essentially a point from which nothing can return. He's referring to the inability to testify about any event occurring inside this limit beyond the horizon that can not be seen.

Listed: "Revolutionary Result" coming from the horizon of the Horizon event "The horizons of events are the ultimate wall in the prison ̵

1; you can get it, but never go out," said Ave Loeb, Department of Astronomy at Harvard University, in an interview with Space.com

. will see that the image of the element has blushed and blurred, since the gravitational radiation proceeds from this element. In the horizon of events, this image will effectively disappear to invisibility

Within the horizon of events it would be possible to find the singularity of a black hole, where previous studies show that all of the mass of an object collapsed to an infinitely dense extent. This means that the space and time tissue around singularity is also curved to an infinite extent, so the laws of physics, as we now know, break up.

"The horizons of events protect us from unknown physics near the singularity," said Lob.

Affected: Image: Black openings of the universe

The size of the horizon of events depends on the mass of a black hole. If the Earth was compressed until it became a black hole, it would have a diameter of about 0.69 inches (17.4 millimeters), slightly less than a penny; if the sun had been converted into a black hole, it would have been about 3.62 miles (5.84 kilometers) in width, approximately the size of a village or city. Supermassive black holes observe the Horizon telescope are much larger; Sagittarius A *, in the center of the Milky Way, is approximately 4.3 million times the size of our Sun and has a diameter of about 7.9 million kilometers, and the M87 in the center of the Virgin galaxy – about 6 million kilometers. a billion solar masses and 11 billion miles (17.7 billion kilometers) wide.

The gravitational force of a black hole depends on the distance from it – the closer you are, the stronger the tug. But the consequences of this gravity on the visitor will vary, depending on the mass of the black hole. For example, if you fall into a relatively small black hole that is several times the mass of the Sun, you will stretch out and pull out in the process known as spaghettiffication, dying long before you reach the horizon of the events.

However, if you hit the supermassive black hole millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, you would not have felt such forces to a large extent, "said Lob. You would not die of spaghetti before crossing the horizons of events (although many other dangers around such a black hole can kill you before you get to that place). Recent data suggests that black holes can rotate at speeds exceeding 90% of light, says Leb.

Listed: Quiz with a black hole: How well do you know the oldest creations of nature? Earlier, the most basic model of black holes was that they were not rotating, and their features were considered to be points. But since black holes are rotated at all, precise patterns indicate that their features are infinitely thin rings. This leads to the fact that the rotational horizons of black holes, also known as black Kerr holes, are oblong-knocked at the poles and protrude on their equators. The outer horizons of events of such an object act as a non-return point, similar to the horizons of events of a non-rotational black hole. The inner horizon of the events of a rotating black hole, also known as the horizon of Cauchy, is unfamiliar. Having passed this threshold does not necessarily precede the effect anymore; the past does not necessarily determine the future, and travel time may be possible. (In a non-reactive black hole, also known as the Black Schwarzschild hole, the inner and outer horizons coincide.)

A rotating black hole also forces the space-time fabric to rotate around it, a phenomenon known as a drag frame or a Lense-Thirring effect. Dragging the frame is also observed around other massive bodies, including the Earth.

Dragging a frame creates a cosmic vortex, known as the ergosphere, which occurs outside the outer horizon of the events of a rotating black hole. Any object in the ergosphere is forced to move in the same direction as the black hole rotates. Matter falling into the ergosphere may receive sufficient speed to avoid the attraction of a black hole, taking with it some energy of a black hole. Thus, black holes can have a profound effect on the environment

Rotation can also make black holes more effective in converting any matter that enters them into energy. The non-reactionary black hole would convert into an energy of about 5.7% of the mass of the incident object according to the known Einstein equation E = mc ^ 2. Conversely, a rotating black hole can convert up to 42% of the mass of the energy into energy, scientists have determined

Viewed: The most amazing black holes in the universe

are important implications for the environment around black holes, "said Lob. "The amount of energy from supermassive black holes in the centers of almost all large galaxies can significantly affect the evolution of these galaxies."

Recent work greatly hampered the common perception of black holes. In 2012, physicists have suggested that something falling into a black hole may come up with " firewalls " in or near the horizon of events that will burn any substance.

However, other studies seeking to combine with the general theory of relativity which can explain the nature of gravity, from quantum mechanics, which can describe the behavior of all known particles, suggests that firewalls may not exist , as the horizons of events themselves may not exist. Some physicists assume that instead of the abyss, from which nothing can return, what we now consider black holes can actually be a series of black-and-white objects that do not have horizons of events, such as the so-called fuzzballs, said Forehead. By visualizing the edges of black holes, the Event Horizon telescope can help scientists analyze the shape and behavior of the horizons of events.

"We can use these images to restrict any theory about the structure of black holes," said Lob. "Indeed, fuzzball speculation – when the events horizon is not a sharp cut, but rather fuzzy – can be tested with images from the Event Horizon telescope."

Follow Charles C. Cho on Twitter @cqchoi . Follow us on Twitter. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook .


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