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The sun has 17,500 ° F of souls of cooling gases in tiny magnetic hinges



They say they do not have to look at the sun – but for the last ninety months, the physicist Emily Mason was doing something every day, besides studying the image made on the surface of our star.

Ms. Mason and her colleagues found parts of the sun where the superheated gases are cooled to fall to the surface of the star as rain.

The results create a connection between the two greatest secrets of the sun – the nature of the heat that causes the outside atmosphere of the sun. about 300 times hotter than its underlying surface, and a source of slower and dense parts of the solar wind. from the surface of the sun. The discovery of rain in smaller magnetic hinges helped narrow the area in which coronal heating should occur ”

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The researchers studied previously missed small magnetic structures (depicted here, in two wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light), which are loops from the surface of the sun. Opening of the rain in smaller magnetic hinges helped to narrow the area in which coronal heating should occur

The sun – a huge plasma of plasma – super hot, electrically charged gases – of which arc lines of magnetic field

The concept of rain on the Sun may seem absurd, – but the familiar phenomenon of the weather is a great analogue for some of the processes taking place on the surface of our neighbor's star.

On Earth, rain is a key part of the water cycle. Liquid water on the surface of the Earth – found in the basins of rivers, lakes or oceans – evaporates when heated from the sun. After raising into the atmosphere, the water cools, condensing in the clouds.

When drops of water in the clouds become too heavy to stay suspended in the air, they fall on the Earth as rain. And, thus, the cycle is repeated.

In the sun, coronal rain works in a similar way, explains Ms. Mason. "But instead of 60-degree water, you're dealing with a million-degree plasma," she said.

However, instead of collecting on the ground, the plasma passes along the magnetic loops that extend in arcs from the surface of the sun.

At the end of each loop, where the lines extend from the star's surface, the plasma is heated from several thousand to one million degrees Celsius (1.8m ° F). his loop until she is going to the top – the most distant from the heat source – where it can cool down, condense and fall down the loop like coronal rain. Early coronal rain was observed after solar eruptions, where the solar-related heat cut off sharply, leaving the erupting plasma to cool and returning to the surface of the Sun.

Based on computer simulations and past solar wind observations, Ms. Mason also expected to find coronal rain in so-called "helmet tapes" – magnetic loops up to millions of kilometers protruding from the sun during the solar eclipse .

The helmets are so called because of their likeness to the helmet.

Scientists have been known since the mid-1990s that helmets are one of the sources of a slow solar wind – a relatively calm and dense flow of gas that goes out of the sun regardless of its faster moving analog

Measurement of gas at a slow sunny wind was it has been shown that it was once heated to the extreme degree before it cooled down and slipped out of the sun.

As coronal rain experiences such heat and cooling, it seemed that such a rain would play an active role along helmet streamers and the formation of a slow wind.

At the same time, as well as simulation, it is assumed that coronal rain can only be formed when heat is fed to the bottom of the host's magnetic loop – the bottom 10 percent or less – the detection of the size of the loop containing the rain will provide a form of measuring a rod for determining a limited area above the surface of the sun, in which the crown is heated.

Ms. Mason studied images taken by NASA's solar dynamics observatory, a space vehicle that photographed the sun every twelve seconds after it was launched in 2010. A year later, I was looking for coronal rain in helmets for no avail.

"I have probably been looking at data about three or nine years," said Ms. Mason. "Many have been looking for something that never happened."

  Coronal rain (depicted in this photo taken by NASA in 2012) was previously observed after solar eruptions, when the heating, which is directly from the solar flare, is sharply cut off, which results in the plasma cooling and returning to the surface of the sun . In a new study, Ms. Mason and colleagues did not consider coronal rain from such eruptions, but rather than triggering a cyclic process of heating and cooling plasma along magnetic fields

Coronal rain (in the image taken by NASA's 2012 solar dynamics observatory ) was observed earlier in the waves of solar eruptions, when the heating, which is connected with the solar flare, is sharply cut off, resulting in a plasma cooling and falling to the surface of the sun. In a new study, Ms. Mason and colleagues did not consider coronal rain from such eruptions, but instead of causing a cyclic process of heating and cooling plasma along magnetic field lines

. magnetic structures – tiny loops in height only 48,000 km, only a percentage of the size of the helmet tape, which he intended to concentrate on.

"They were very bright and they continued to draw my eyes," he said. Ms. Mason "When I finally looked at them, no doubt that they had dozens of hours of rain at the same time."

However, focusing on the purpose of finding rain in helmet tapes, she first rejected these findings – while colleagues did not understand. that her observations were quite new.

"She came to a meeting in a group and said:" I have never found her – I see her all the time in these other structures, but they are not helmet ribbons, "said Nikolen Vial, a solar sun scientist.

And I said: "Wait … hold on. Where do you see him? I do not think anyone saw it before! "

The discovery of rain in smaller magnetic hinges has helped to narrow the area in which coronal heating should occur.

" We still do not know what warms the crown, but we know that she has

Some of these conclusions made the researchers also review the previous theories.

It was believed that coronal rain can only be formed on closed magnetic hinges – where a superheated plasma can be assembled at the far end of the loop and cooled down without any means to escape.

However, when Ms. Mason studied data on small loops, she also identified cases where the rain appears to be formed on open lines of the magnetic field. 19659002] Such open lines are only connected to the Sun at one end – with the other end going into space, feeding with a sunny wind. Plasma, according to researchers, always begins its journey through a closed magnetic cycle – but it can go to an open loop through a process known as a magnetic resumption.

A reconnect occurs frequently on the Sun, which occurs when closed loops come across on the open field line, changing the ways in which the field is located.

As the train switches, the overheated plasma can thus be in an open loop – which means that when cooled some of them will inevitably turn to the sun like coronary rain, but the rest freely escape.

This is, according to scientists, as part of the slow sunny wind is released.

  Mason hunted for coronary rain in helmet ribbons, like the one depicted on the left side of the Sun, as was shown during the 1994 obscurity of South America. The sizes of helmets extend far into the solar crown. On the right side of the image you can see a smaller "pseudo-implementer"

Mason hunted coronary rain in helmet ribbons, like the one depicted on the left side of the sun, as was shown during the blackout of 1994, shot from South America. The sizes of helmets extend far into the solar crown. On the right side of the image you can see a smaller pseudo-implementer

Ms. Mason is working on creating a computer simulation to support this new explanation.

2018, which will be able to fly, albeit to break the slow sunny wind, and trace its point of origin on the Sun – for example, one of the events of coronal rain Mrs. Mason.

Potentially, we can do this with Parker Solar. Despite these occasional findings, the search for coronal rains in helmet belts carries itself – with simulations that still suggest that these two phenomena should be found together.

Is there so little that you can not see it? "- said the paper's author and solar physicist Spiro Antiochos from the NASA Goddard Space Field Center. He admits: "We really do not know".

Complete results of the study were published in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

How is the sunny wind formed?

The sun and its atmosphere are made of plasma – a mixture of positively and negatively charged particles that are divided at extremely high temperatures that simultaneously carry and move along the lines of the magnetic field.

Material from the crown flows into space, filling the solar system with solar wind.

But scientists have found that when the plasma passes further from the Sun, everything changes.

Types of solar wind from the spacecraft STEREO NASA (left) and after the computer processing (right). Scientists have used an algorithm to suppress the emergence of bright stars and dust on images of a weak sunshine

The sun begins to lose magnetic control, forming a boundary that defines the outer crown – the very edge of the sun.

The decay of rays is similar to the way a water comes out of a pistol.

First, water is a smooth and only stream, but in the end it dissolves into a drop, then into small droplets and ultimately into a thin, foggy spray.

NASA's recent study captured the plasma at the same stage, where the water flow gradually splits into a drop.

If charged particles from solar winds affect the Earth's magnetic field, this may cause problems for satellite and communication equipment.


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