Announcing the award at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm on Monday, the Nobel Committee said the trio's opening paved the way for "promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases"
a technique that regulates gene activity in response to different oxygen levels.
The value of oxygen has long been established, the committee explained, but how cells adapt to changes in its levels remains unknown.
Randall Johnson, a member of the prize committee, described the trio's work as "opening a textbook."  "This is something basic that biology students will learn when they study, at the age of 1
Born in New York, Caelin set up her own research lab at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston and became a full professor at Harvard Medical School in 2002.
Semenz, also born in New York, became a professor at Johns Hopkins University in 1999 and since 2003 has been director of the Johns Hopkins Institute for Vascular Research.
Rothcliff, who was born in Lancashire, England, studied medicine at the University of Cambridge and formed an independent research group at Oxford University, becoming a full professor in 1996.
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