The annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, held at the end of March in Cleveland, Ohio, looked forward to those who are interested in human descent, as it would be here that Bens Viola, a Canadian paleoanthropologist at the University of Toronto, would reveal details of discovery the first fragment of the skull Denisov.
As it turned out, in fact there were seven main presentations that offered new insights about the mysterious world of Denisovs, the existence of which was confirmed when a finger bone found in Denisov's cave in Siberia was identified as belonging to an unknown type.
Further genetic studies have shown that a number of modern populations in southern and eastern Eurasia, as well as in Australia, Melanesia and Oceania, have something of up to 3-5% of origin originating from Denisovans, the display of widespread distribution to their assumption of disappearing near 45 000 ̵
Denisovik skull fragment
Presentation Bens on Denisov's tortoise, found during excavations in Denisov's cave in Siberia in 2016, is a piece of palm size that belongs to the back of the left side of the brain's cell. Apparently, the skull is extremely thick, similar to what it had previously seen with other archaic people, the most obvious is that Homo erectus.
Denisov Cave, Siberia, where the opening of the fragment of the skull Denisov was confirmed. (Demin Aleksey Barnaul / CC BY SA 4.0 )
The study of mitochondrial DNA of a fragment of a skull inherited from mother to child has already confirmed that it belongs to the one belonging to Denisov, one of which belongs to today's population known as the Siberian Denis (see below). Its immense thickness was prompted by Svante Pyabo from the Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology. Max Planck in Leipzig, Germany, who led the team that successfully extracted the Denisov bone genome to recognize the Guardian that "They [the Denisovans] seem to be very large and strong, even in comparison with the Neanderthals, "adding that by size and appearance," they were, perhaps, quite impressive.
No picture of the skull fragment has yet appeared in the public domain, although it is expected that this, as well as the official art reconstruction of what, probably, would look Denisovan.
A picture of the Neanderthal mother and Parent Denisovana with their child, girl, in Denisov's cave in Russia ( Photo by Petra Korlević )
Evidence for three types of denizens
In another presentation, biologist Populer Murray Cox from University of Mass. In Palmerston North, New Zealand, and the molecular biologist Geravati Sudoio of the Institute of Molecular Bio Oghay Eikman in Jakarta has revealed how a new DNA study of complete genomes of 161 people from 14 groups in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea shows that their ancient ancestors were confused with the local population of Denisovan and 43,000 many years ago. These modern groups of people inherited about 400 genes, including the variant of the immune gene (TNFAIP3) and the gene involved in the diet (WDFY2).
More important is the evidence of some of these modern populations, especially Papua- New Guinea, which are crossed with another, much later De group nisovans They have genes that are somewhat different from the genes of the early Denisovans group, which means that there were three different types of Denisovans that existed at one time.
The first type, commonly called the Siberian Denisovann, whose remains were found in Denisov's cave and whose genes are thriving today in modern populations of East Asia and North America, are now called D0, with two groups. which flourished on the island of Southeast Asia, including Papua New Guinea, were designated D1 and D2. More improbable is that one of these groups (D1) could well survive up to 30,000 and 15,000 years ago, suspecting the timing of their intrigues with modern people in the region.
Works on excavations in the Eastern Chamber of the Denisov Caves, Russia. (19659008) Credit: Bens Viola, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology )
This new knowledge on the island of Southeast Asian Denisovani, also known as the Australian Denisov or Sunna Denisovan, confirms the evidence presented in a genetic study published in 2018. It turned out that the Denisovan genome on the island of Southeast Asia looks so different as the Siberian Denisov, it is evident that the two populations were divided from the total Denisovsky ancestor as much as 363 thousand years ago. Neanderthals, somewhere between 380,000 and 470,000 years ago.
They, in turn, split from a common ancestor that was shared with contemporary humans ( Homo sapiens ), to 770,000 to 550,000 years ago. This means that the two main types of Denisov, one in Siberia (and possibly a Tibetan plateau) and the other in South-East Asia, Australia and Oceania, may need to be classified as entirely separate archaic populations, each of which has its own name.
The spread and evolution of Denisovans based on available evidence in 2014. Croft / CC BY SA 3.0 )
Parsing and mixing DNA Denisov
More important to confirm, however, is whether there is indeed one branch of denizens on the island of Southeast Asia until then, as 30-15 000 years ago, as Cox and Sudoio proposed in his study. This is a controversial claim that Cosimo Post of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, is unlikely to be.
His view is that the data suggest a late maturing with individuals of high Denisovan genes, which may reflect the encounter between a relatively isolated modern population of Denisov hybrids and separate distant, modern human societies. For him, modern people were combined with Denisovanni, after which modern populations diverged, allowing each branch to retain a different set of Denisovan genes. Somewhere later, it would seem, between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago, if Cox and Sudoio are faithful, modern human societies are once again united by creating a new blend of Denisov DNA.
However, although some Deniseist groups on the island of Southeast Asia survived to 15,000 years ago, this means that they could become the last archaic human population that coexisted with modern people, defeating Neanderthals for about 25,000 years, and Homo erectus for about 10 thousand years. They survived in small groups in Java until about 25,000 years ago.
Reconstruction of an adult male Neanderthal, based on the La Chappelle-aux-Saints skull, dated c. 50,000 years ago, E. Deineys (2010), Museum of the Evolution of Humana, Burgos. CC BY SA 4.0 )
The question now relates to the influence of both the Siberian Denisovans and their family groups or groups on the island of Southeast Asia on the development of modern human societies, the transition from one to other technologies, cosmologies, artistic skills and even the nuclei of civilization.
All these topics are dealt with in a new book Denisovan's Origins: Gebecli-tepe, Hybrid People and Genesis of the Giants of Ancient America, written by Dr. Greg Little and I and published this September Tradition.
We show how the Siberian Denisovs had a tremendous influence on the spread of the Upper Paleolithic traditions, and through it the ascension of civilization, both to the south and east of Siberia, as well as to the west to the Atlantic coast of Europe, and, possibly, even outside of America. This is important, since only from the Denisova cave in Siberia we have to prove not only their presence, but also their enormous refinement, as evidenced by archaeological finds, such as the extraordinary Denisov bracelet, at least two bony needles. , which involves making clothes tailored to the needs; along with fragments of a whistle or flute that involves the invention of music, and the presence of an extremely advanced blade tool technology that would continue to inspire a standard set of modern people's tools to the Neolithic age. Less clear, however, is the influence of the Denisovan Islands of Southeast Asia on the emergence of modern human societies in this region. Some may look at the megalithic pyramid of the Gudung Padang on the Java Island, Indonesia, which is now considered as 25,000 years old, as well as the rocky platform of Yonaguni, the westernmost island of Japan, flooded by at least 10,000 people. years, as evidence of the former presence in Southeast Asia of advanced denise groups.
In addition, we drew the art of a cave on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, which has at least 40,000 years, as well as testimonies from Ryukyus, Australia and the Oceania, indicating the presence of significant swimming technologies 35,000 years ago. All these locations are supported by the modern population, demonstrating anything up to 5% of the origin of Denisov. Only this indicates the former presence in the region or Denisovann, or their hybrid descendants.
Bradshaw Rock Art
The earliest known images of marine vessels from this region originate from the 20,000-year-old art of Bradshaw in Kimberley, Northwest Australia. It is believed that she has been at least 20,000 years old, and possibly up to 50,000 years old, one example shows a boat with inverted ends and a rectangular wheel (see Figure 1 below). The horizontal stripes can be distinguished along the body, which indicates the design of the fibers. The boat shows 20 human figures, which confirm its huge size. It is very clear that the high nose of a ship must cut large waves in the open seas. Another example of a nearby seagoing vessel shows that in its building there are 29 people.
Fig. 1. 20 000-year-old ocean ship, part of the Bradshaw Art Collection in Kimberley, Western Australia (after Graham L. Walsh). Her body shows 20 human figures (Image: © Andrew Collins).
In addition to the images of canoes and high-strength boats on the Bradshaw art site, there is a series of paintings depicting human figures wearing sophisticated costumes and huge hats. Others stand next to abstract anthropomorphs of immense size. Among the arts are highly-styled figures that seem to float next to or transform into animals above which either heavenly objects are visible, or else-like manifestations (see Figure 2). It is impossible to deny the tremendous exquisite art of Bradshaw, and to know that it reaches 50,000 years is an extraordinary realization.
Rock art from the Bradshaw Collection of Western Australia showing human figures visible alongside or similar to the kangaroo-like creature or heavenly objects. ( Public Domain )
It is possible that Denisovans or pronounced Denisovan-modern human hybrids on the island of South-East Asia, Australia and Oceania were responsible for the sudden emergence of advanced human behavior, including the invention seagoing ships, possibly as much as 50,000 years ago? Were these technologies simply a product of the very first modern people to reach the region of Africa, perhaps, another 75,000 years ago? Until we can fully confirm the physical presence of Denisovs or vivid Denisovan-modern human hybrids on the island of Southeast Asia, Australia and Oceania, these extraordinary issues are unlikely to be answered with any degree of certainty.
A man walks in a sea cave at sunset, an illustration of painting. New studies of Denisovans provide more insight into their lives and the spread of the population. Source: grandfailure / Adobe
Posted by Andrew Collins
Andrew Collins is the author of science and history, author of a number of books that challenge as we see it. past. Lives in the UK. His web site: www.andrewcollins.com
B.T. Viola et al. Parietal fragment from Denisova cave. Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Cleveland, March 28, 2019.
C Stringer. Placement of Denisovans in the evolution of man. American Association of Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting, Cleveland, March 28, 2019.
G.S. Jacobs et al. Several deeply diverge the ancestors of Denisov in Papuans. Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Cleveland, March 28, 2019. your colleagues