Although Einstein’s theory of general relativity can explain a large number of fascinating astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, some aspects of the properties of the universe on the largest scale remain a mystery. A new study using quantum cosmology – a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein’s theory of general relativity – explains two main mysteries. Although differences in theories occur on the smallest scale – much smaller than even the proton – they have implications for the largest scale available in the universe. The study, which appears online on July 29 in the journal Physical examination letters, also makes new predictions about the universe that could test future satellite missions.
Although the enlarged picture of the universe looks fairly uniform, it has a large-scale structure, for example, because galaxies and dark matter are not evenly distributed throughout the universe. The origin of this structure can be traced to the tiny inhomogeneities observed in the cosmic microwave background (SMB) – radiation that was emitted when the universe was 380,000 years old, which we can still see today. But the KMB itself has three amazing features that are considered anomalies because they are difficult to explain using known physics.
“While seeing one of these anomalies may not be so statistically remarkable, seeing two or more together suggests that we live in an exceptional universe,” said Dongwei Chong, an associate professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn and author of the article. “A recent study in the journal Nature Astronomy offered an explanation for one of these anomalies, which caused so many additional problems, and they marked” a possible crisis in cosmology. “However, using quantum loop cosmology, we solved these two anomalies naturally, avoiding this potential crisis.”
Research over the past three decades has greatly improved our understanding of the early universe, including how inhomogeneities are primarily produced in KMBs. These inhomogeneities are the result of the inevitable quantum oscillations of the early universe. During the highly accelerated phase of expansion in very early times — known as inflation — these initial, meager fluctuations stretched under gravity and sowed the observed inhomogeneities in the SMV.
“To understand how the primordial seeds came into being, we need a closer look at the early universe, where Einstein’s theory of general relativity is collapsing,” said Abhai Ashtekar, Evan Pew, a physics professor who owns the Eberley family physics department and director of the State Institute of Gravity and Space. Penna. “The standard inflationary paradigm, based on general relativity, considers space time as a smooth continuum. Consider a shirt that looks like a two-dimensional surface, but on closer inspection you can see that it is woven with tightly packed one-dimensional threads. In this way, the fabric time is really woven with quantum threads. Taking into account these threads, the quantum cosmology of the loop allows us to go beyond the continuum described by the general relativity, where Einstein’s physics is destroyed – for example, outside the Big Bang. “
A previous study by researchers of the early universe replaced the idea of a feature of the Big Bang, where the universe arose from nothing, with the Great Rebound, where the current expanding universe emerged from the super-compressed mass that was created when the universe shrank into its previous phase. They found that all large-scale structures of the universe, which account for general relativity, are equally explained by inflation after this Great Bounce, using the equations of quantum cosmology of the loop.
In a new study, researchers have found that inflation within quantum cosmology also addresses two major anomalies that arise under general relativity.
“The initial fluctuations we’re talking about occur on an incredibly small Planck scale,” said Braesh Gupt, a doctoral student in Penn at the time of the study and currently at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin. “Planck’s length is about 20 orders of magnitude smaller than the proton radius. But correcting inflation on this unthinkably small scale simultaneously explains two anomalies on the largest scale in the universe, in space tango very small and very large.”
Researchers have also made new predictions about the fundamental cosmological parameter and primary gravitational waves that could be tested during future satellite missions, including LiteBird and Cosmic Origins Explorer, which will further improve our understanding of the early universe.
The Shape of the Universe: Exploration Can Make Us Rethink Everything We Know About Space
Abhai Ashtekar et al., Reducing the voltage in the cosmic microwave background using Planck physics, Physical examination letters (2020). DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.125.051302
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Citation: Space tango between very small and very large (2020, July 30) received on July 30, 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2020-07-cosmic-tango-small-large.html
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