Going forward until 2019 and the anti-vaccination campaign is a global, multilateral animal – driven by security, religious and political convictions, preference for homeopathic approaches and widespread misinformation.
For over 150 years, the negative reaction is not just against vaccination, but against vaccine vaccinations. Today, the growth of populism in Europe and the United States is part of a new wave of anti-vaccine mistrust of the institution, experts say.
Today, anti-government sentiment "continues to remain a thread in the anti-vaccine movement, especially in this era of distrust of power," Professor Heidi Larson, director of the "Vaccine Trust" project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told CNN.
Larson said that populism and the anti-vaccination movement are "completely complicated", adding that this is a "symptom" of "major distrust" in the institution.
"Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding a disease – it is currently preventing 2-3 million deaths a year, and another 1.5 million can be avoided if global vaccine coverage improves," WHO said.
But fluctuations in the vaccine, or the reluctance or refusal of vaccination, despite the presence of vaccines, "threaten the reverse progress achieved in the fight against vaccine-preventable diseases."
This trend is observed in the growing number of anti-vaccines
In Italy, reversal vaccination
In August last year, the populist government of Italy shocked the scientific and medical community after removing the obligatory vaccination for schoolchildren
ANSA news agency reported that League leader and Interior Minister Matteo In June 2018, Salvini stated that 10 vaccine vaccines, which include measles, tetanus and poliomyelitis, were "in vain and in many cases unsafe if not harmful "
The bill was first introduced by the Democratic Party a month earlier, against the background of a constant flare of measles, which recorded 5,004 cases in 2017, the second largest figure in Europe after Romania, according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Italy accounts for 34% of all measles reported by the countries of the European Economic Area, reports the Center.
"Italy is part of a global trend of mistrust of mediators – doctors and scientists – who can interpret and explain data," said Andrea Grignolio, who teaches the history of medicine and bioethics at the University of Rome, La Sapénza.
"From the advent of the Internet people have the illusion that they can access and read data themselves, eliminating the need for technical and scientific knowledge. "
Experts say that the origin of the recent anti-vaccine movement in Italy can be traced back to the 2012 court decision, which watched outs m and combined vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, although this decision was canceled after three years, it added the spread of theories against vaccination throughout the country – and the world.
Debunked & # 39; science
In the United States, anti-vaccine regeneration was reinforced by actors Jim Carrey and Jenny McCarthy, who believed that vaccines could promote son of McCarthy's autism – and noisy celebrities such as the real estate tycoon and star of reality, Donald Trump.
The report, published by CDC in October, showed that although the coverage for a number of vaccines "remained high and stable overall," the segment of unvaccinated children under 2 years of age increased from 0.9% for those born in 2011, up to 1.3% for births In 2015, only 0.3% of children aged 19 to 35 months did not receive vaccine doses.
The growth of unvaccinated children has been recorded globally with global flare outbreaks last year. WHO.
The prevalence of measles cases registered at WHO headquarters in 183 countries has shown an almost 50% increase in cases in mid-January 2019, compared with this date in 2018.
The world's treasures of bark have been steadily declining until 2016, according to Dr. Katrina Kretzinger, WHO immunization program. But from 2017, this figure has grown rapidly, she said, noting that among the rich countries included, where there is historically a high level of vaccination, we observe that we have outbreaks that are long, which are significant and growing, " Kretsinger said at a conference this week: "This is not an isolated issue."
Although there are many reasons why parents might not vaccinate their children, the reason that the movement against vaccination could so apply has one common denominator: social media
Emergence of the message
 Rise and Diversification – Social Media Platforms, Catapulted Rhetoric Against Vaccination in the Mainstream
David R. Carey, Executive Director, Center for Ethics and Policy on Vaccine, told CNN that hesitation or anti-vaccination initiatives all more and more capable of using the priceless and highly effective social media platforms to spread their message.
Arguments that are not zasn which are frankly devastating to public health, "said Curry, noting that it is critical that social media allowed anti-vaccine rhetoric to be spread to countries where the historic confidence in the vaccine was high.
"The challenges we are seeing is that we do not have an effective, well-equipped set of measures to counteract this threat, and we see this as a major problem," he added.
In these Facebook groups, the boundaries between political rhetoric and health issues are often erased. And while many of these networks may feel a small, cohesive community, they are not immune from foreign interference.
"One of the things about them, which was strange, was that they tried – or they seemed to have tried – to vaccinate with problems in American discourse, such as racial imbalances or class distortions that traditionally not vaccinated, "lead author David Broniatowski, associate professor at the University of George Washington School of Engineering and Applied Sciences said.
Having pushed back
Now critics are appealing to companies such as Facebook, YouTube and Google to take more responsibility for public health violations occurring on their platforms, arguing that social media can not deliberately ignore the acceptance of meaningful responsibility for content on their sites.
"If interested parents consistently see the information in their newsletter, which challenges the safety or efficacy of vaccines, it can make them ignore the advice of their doctors and healthcare professionals and refuse to follow the recommended vaccination schedule, "Schiff said," The repetition of information, even if it is incorrect, can often be accepted for accuracy, and the effect on the content of anti-vaccine through social media may adversely affect the user's attitude to vaccination. "
Ohio teenage Ethan Lindenberger grew up thinking that the vaccination was not normal, placing at Reddit's popular post in November last year that "my parents consider the vaccine to be a definite scheme of government."
But he did not agree with his parents, telling CNN this week that he wants to protect others from illnesses just like himself.
"Obviously, it's a little scary to me, but I will try to do my utmost to convince my parents that
CNN's Gianluca Mezzofiore contributed to this report