MOYU COUNTY, China – In a lesson in far western China, a dozen adults, dressed in white coats, sit at a long table, with livestock textbooks open to them.
The smoke of chickens and geese and frescoes of cows consider the fact that students are in one of the vast camps in Xinjiang, a region home to more than 10 million Muslim Uighurs.
About 10 percent of Xinjiang's Uighur population is closed. according to the US government and human rights organizations. The Communist Party of China claims that these centers are a crucial part of its efforts to fight terror, extremism and separatism.
Buischikh Abuliz, Director of the My Vocational Education and Training Center in Hotan Prefecture in southwestern Xinjiang, made it clear that the role of the centers is to change the minds and opinions of those who are forced to live there.
"If we leave thinking about terrorism for development, it is very easy to get upset or other issues. We prevent it," he told NBC News in early September. "Our center is to prevent terrorism."
International human rights groups say Chinese authorities are actually involved in mass acts of torture, torture and mistreatment of Xinjiang Uighurs. Human Rights Watch, a non-profit group based in New York, said "violent abuse, including torture and torture . [1
The Chinese government has provided NBC News with rare access to three of them, which they call "vocational education and training centers", where, according to them, the Uighurs Rome learned law and culture and Mandarin skills such as storage shops, hospitality, livestock and e-commerce.
Government officials brought NBC News to two Khotan prefecture camps and one in Kashgar, northwest of the province. NBC spoke with the director of each camp, and Uyghur detainees were always available for interview with government and camp officials present.
In camps visited by NBC News, dormitories were rarely equipped with little personal possession. Some classes were equipped with computers and others with musical instruments. It is impossible to know whether the conditions in the camps for the purpose of the NBC visit have changed or improved, or similar conditions in other camps.
The government did not respond to NBC News' questions about the number of centers in the region, how many people went through them, or how many are passing there. The Australian Institute for Strategic Policy, a non-party think tank, has estimated that there are currently 143 camps holding Uyghurs.
Before thinkers, farmer Abiza Hijabulah acknowledged his right.
"As a Chinese citizen, I have violated Chinese laws and regulations, I have committed a crime, I have betrayed my country, I have broken the law and I am not thankful for good politics," said a 41-year-old detained farmer for six years for preaching separatism.
Hijabala, who spoke with NBC News during a livestock class, stated that he had been released from prison and sent to a camp where he spent a year.
According to Chinese officials, there are three types of students in these retraining centers: those who have committed a minor offense, such as wearing a jacket or watching an illegal religious video; those who committed more serious offenses and were given a choice of those present than in prison; and others sent for rehabilitation after prison.
The director of the Abulizi camp stated that when people arrive, they are first taught Chinese law and the national language of China. Then they learn professional skills.
The detainees must pass the exams to leave the centers, officials said. Despite repeated requests, officials will not provide the exact criteria they use to determine a person's release. Instead, they said that "graduation" tests combine assessments of language skills, understanding of Chinese law and regulations, "de-radicalization" and professional skills.
"The War Against Separatism" When officials can teach Mandarin and professional skills in camps, this is not their real purpose, according to Dennis Wilder, former director of the National Security Council in China and former deputy director of the CIA for East Asia and Tihoin .
"They have, to a certain extent, crushed Muslim culture, Uighur culture – to make people feel much more attached to the Communist Party than to their own religious beliefs," said Wilder, who is also the managing director of the US Initiative for Dialogue China on global issues at Georgetown University in Washington. “It is trying to dramatically change the hearts and minds of these people.
"It's a war against separatism," he added. "And they are going to use whatever methods are needed to prevent it."
Omar Kanat, director of the Human Rights Organizations Project The Uyghur, a Washington-based human rights organization, called the centers "concentration camps" aimed at destroying the Uyghur culture.
"They are forcing detainees to abandon their religion, to abandon their culture, to abandon their identity, to make them speak Mandarin," said Kanat, who is also chairman of the Uiggur Uighur Executive Committee the Uyghur state. "They are forcing them to say that there is no God, there is only the Communist Party."
In Istanbul, Turkey, Uighurs who fled China told NBC News that some of their Xinjiang relatives were detained and heard from
Abdulhaber Recep told NBC News that he and his wife, Aigul Abdullah, had fled to a neighbor Kyrgyzstan. Three years ago, and 10 days after she gave birth to a Hamza boy, she traveled to Xinjiang to pick up her four other sons to bring them back to Turkey. Recep says he hasn't seen his wife and older sons since.
"When she returned home, the local authorities, the Communists, confiscated her passport, saying, 'We will return your passport later'."  After that, in May 2017, Abdullah was detained and imprisoned, Recep said, playing with Hamza.
"I later heard from other people who had sentenced her to nine years in prison," he added, speaking from a home in Istanbul, where he is part of the largest Uighur population abroad Central Asia.
NBC News was unable to verify this account on its own. Chinese officials dismiss stories such as lies.
Serious tensions have threatened relations between the Chinese state and the Uighur population in Xinjiang over the past 25 years. The area is rich in natural resources and is part of President Xi Jinping's Belt and Road Initiative, a large-scale infrastructure project to unite China with the rest of Asia, Europe and Africa.
Chinese officials say that since 1990, "several thousand" people have been killed or injured in "Uyghur" bombings, killings, poisonings, arson and riots. charges
In 2009, nearly 200 people were killed in riots in the regional capital of Xinjiang, Urumqi, the Chinese say. Uyghur militants are accused of attacking train stations, markets and firing cars in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, killing two tourists. In March 2014, a group of Uighurs killed 31 at a railway station in the southwestern city of Kunming, and just a few months later, in May, 43 people were killed during a bombing at a market in Urumqi, according to officials.
riots frightened the Chinese. Seeking to cover the Uighur violence, Chinese officials launched a NBC News excursion in Xinjiang with a report on terrorism, documenting every attack they believe was carried out by the Muslim minority.
Supervision has been intensified throughout the region, as in the whole country. Police checkpoints and security cameras are common in the area. Muslims are only allowed to pray in state-sanctioned mosques.
Camp directors defended their centers and said that the conditions for the Uighurs were comfortable there.
"The accommodation conditions are very good for us," said Mizhiti Mayhemuti, director of the Kashgar district's Center for Vocational Education and Training. “Six people live in the room. There are air conditioning, TV, cabinets and more. We offer all this to our students for free. "
The US Government has taken a tougher stance against Chinese treatment of Uighurs and weighed sanctions against high-ranking Chinese officials in Xinjiang, including the top echelon Communist Party leader Chen Quang.
On Wednesday, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo condemned the Chinese treatment of the Uighurs.
"When the state rules absolutely, it requires its citizens to worship the government, not God. Therefore, China has placed more than a million Uighur Muslims … in internment camps, "he said during a Vatican conference on religious freedom." When the state rules absolutely, God becomes an absolute threat to power. "
St. Mark Rubio, State Russia, sponsored a bill calling for tough action against China against Uyghurs. He accused Beijing of "introducing children into state-sponsored orphanages, removing their names, depriving them of their ethnic and religious identity. and ".
" Totalitarian governments are very good at orchestrating and performing, "he said." They are 100 percent in control of the region. They control who can speak, who can speak, and what you can see. "
Chinese officials deny accusations that education in the camps shown by the media is being conducted. And regardless, they said, the Uighur policy is working.
"Thanks to the measures we have taken in recent years, Xinjing is a stable, prosperous society that should not be taken for granted," said Sue Guiqiang, deputy chairman of the Chinese Communist Party's advertising, Xinjiang Committee.
"This proves that our measures are effective."