Neanderthals lived mainly in the city, had long been suspected, but were not categorically checked. Now, a new study published on Monday in the PNAS, provides molecular support for the theory of their predatory benefits.
He even postulates that the Neanderthals were among the apex predators in their field, even after anatomically modern people began to enter among them.
It is believed that the ancient ancestors of people lived on plants – as well as the largest monkeys today, burned. However, early vegetarians among the gominin fell out and died out, and the mice continued to this day.
Of course, all this became a thing of the time of the miniature Australopithecus, who lived from 3 to 4 million years ago and ate everything that was moving or not moving. The abandonment of dead animals knocked down by other predators seems to have been a lot of their practice.
For a while, much higher Homo erectus the taste of mint was firmly fixed, although not sure that these early homininks skillfully seized or slaughtered their dinner. They may have also been removed, not hunted, big game, it adds.
It is clear that, after several millions of years, generic gominin has become omnivorous to the Neanderthals and modern people with the desire to learn, so it follows from us that both of us will continue this habit.
The question of which portion in the diet was m & I'm tired? Now the latest study shows that for Neanderthals this proportion was really "very large."
Dead mammoth or mushroom?
Until recently, the evidence had a tendency toward the raw side. For example, in Neanderthal regions bones of animals (as they say in argos, "zooarcheological data") are found.
A recent study posited that Neanderthal develops thickening of the chest – in comparison with us, which makes them enlarged liver and kidneys because of their heavy diet. Weapons used by the Neanderthals, apparently to hunt for dinner, and not to each other or to vicious carrots, were also identified. A recent study even suggests that they may have developed copies that they could throw from afar, as opposed to simply squeezing a spear into their spoil from close ones.
But the latest, most important evidence is the molecular analysis of nitrogen isotopes found in collagen, a protein that in turn was found in two Neanderthal sites in France: Les Cottés and Grotte du Renne. This is not a large proportion of the sample, statistics, but the results are in good agreement with other evidence.
Isotopes are atomic variants that have different weights because they have different neutron numbers. For example, proteins – containing nitrogen – may have nitrogen-14 and more severe nitrogen-15 (with an additional neutron). The proportions of two nitrogen isotopes can be informative.
It was established that the ratio of nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 in Neanderthal bones are similar to those of today's large predators such as wolves. This suggests, let's say, Clarvieja Jawen of the Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology. Max Planck and the international team that the Neanderthals ate mainly with a small portion of vegetables.
This confirms that the Neanderthals existed for several hundred thousand years, and there were a number of morphologies and, probably, a number of behaviors. Please note, for example, among modern people, the morphological differences between the Kalahari bulls and northern Europeans, as well as the differences in diet from country to country.
Another study in 2014 that looked at Neanderthal coprolites (scan of feces) did not argue about the habit of mice, but underlined the vegetative element of the Neanderthal diet: scientists found stighastanol B5 in the fluff that could only get there is food, like roots, berries and nuts.
The bottom line is that the Neanderthals were obviously omnivorous, just like us, but put a much greater emphasis on the muscle than we strive.
So, what animals ate Neanderthals, based on isotopes?
Previous studies have shown that mammals and freshwater fish produce high nitrogen ratios. It also eats rotten meat, baby animals, cooked food (there is a heated debate over whether Neanderthals could control the fire, as opposed to using the fire they were exposed to) – and fungi. It seems that the use of fungi can also lead to high nitrogen isotope values.
The team adds that archaeological evidence confirms hunting for deer, but not fishing, and one of the two sites they tested did not boast mammoth cuisine: "The results of nitrogen isotopes supported the position of Neanderthals in the food network as consumers of herbivores, while high the ratio of isotopes to the bone collagen can only be explained by the consumption of herbivores. "
In short, we do not know exactly what they ate, and this study is not categorical evidence. But this reinforces the view that there were no Neanderthal vegetarians, and they defeated a lot of mice – as much as 80 percent of their diet, according to some scientists. If they ate plants, it was a gourmet from the steak.