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Mammoth DNA briefly awakened & # 39; inside the mouse eggs. But cloning of mammoths is still dreaming of pipes.



A few 280,000-year-old woolen parts of the mammoth cells have recently been "waked" for a short time in the new experiment, but the cloning of the animals of the glacial period is still far away.

Experiments, researchers extracted cells from Yuka, wumly mammoth mummies (19459004) Mammuthus primigenius whose remains were found in Siberian permafrost in 2011. Then, the scientists restored the least damaged nuclei (structures containing genetic material) from each cell and extracted the nuclei in mouse eggs.

Initially, this maneuver "activated" the chromosomes of mammoths, since several biological reactions occurring before cell division occurred within the cell's mouse. But these reactions soon stopped, apparently, partly because the DNA of the mammoth was badly damaged, having spent 28,000 years buried in permafrost, the researchers said. [In Photos: Mummified Woolly Mammoth Discovered]

But why researchers put Mamontov DNA in mouse eggs? The answer relates to the ability of the egg to reproduce the DNA and divide it into more cells.

"Eggs have all the living cellular techniques that you may need to correct errors and fix the damage that has occurred in the nucleus," said Beth Shapiro, professor of ecology and evolution biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who was not involved in the study . [The scientists] basically just got stuck there [the mammoth nuclei] and said: "Okay, cell technology, do your thing."

And, firstly, cell technology tried to fix the damaged DNA in the chromosomes together broken bits, said Shapiro. "But [the egg] can only make so much," she said, Live Science. "When the nuclei are badly damaged, it's simply impossible to restore it to what needs to be done to actually bring it back to life."

As a result, none of the mammalian mouse hybrid cells did not enter the cell division. the step needed to create the embryo, and perhaps one day, the cloning of the mammoth.

"The results presented here clearly show us the de facto impossibility of cloning mammoth with current NT technology [nuclear-transfer]" Researchers wrote in a study published on the Internet on March 1

1 in the journal Scientific Reports.

In other words, "this is a fairly clear demonstration that this approach will not work to clone the mammoth," Shapiro said. "The cells are too damaged".

As soon as the mammoth died, its DNA began to degrade. This is due to the fact that the bacteria from the intestinal mammoth and the environment began to bow to the cells of dead mammoths. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun also broke more genetic material, and these processes continued during the eons. As a result, fragments of DNA in the nucleus, preserved to this day, can be only dozens to hundreds of bases long, and not millions that are in the DNA of modern elephants, – said Shapiro

. , said Rebecca Rogers, associate professor at the Department of Bioinformatics at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte, which was not involved in the study. For example, if researchers can insert even small fragments of DNA mammoth into a cell line, it can reveal what makes DNA in a living creature, she said. [Mammoth Resurrection: 11 Hurdles to Bringing Back an Ice Age Beast]

The researchers added that "our approach opens the way for an assessment of the biological activity of nuclei in extinct animal species."

However, Rogers said that he would like to see more evidence that the chromosome mammoth actually brought it into a mouse egg. "You may have a highly modified mouse chromosome or potentially other DNA contamination," she said. "They have this extraordinary claim that they put the chromosomes of mammoths in the mouse [egg]. I would very much like to see a lot of evidence for such claims."

Other research groups are also trying to revive the mammoth using various technologies. George Church, a geneticist from Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who leads the Harvard woolly revival of mammoths, takes one approach. He uses CRISPR – a tool that can edit the basics of DNA, or letters – to insert woolly mammoth genes into the DNA of Asian elephants that are closely related to extinct animals.

"They do not try to revive the genus of mammoth," Shapiro said. "They are trying to create one by adjusting the genome of an elephant, so they can have a living cell as a final product"

. Many environmentalists claim that resources should be spent on current threats or disappearing animals, and not on animals that have long been killed. Posted on . () {if (document.getElementById ("comments")) {var listener = function () {var rect = document.getElementById ("comments"). getBoundingClientRect (); window.addEventListener ("scroll", listener)}}); loadAPI function () {var js = document.createElement ("script"); js.src = "http://connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js#xfbml=1&appId=131734303545872&version=v2.4"; document.body.appendChild (js)}
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