Historical conservatives hope that the next anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing this summer will convince the United Nations Organization to do something to protect the traces of Neal Armstrong in the moon's dust.
his boot marks are still there, along with other precious artifacts from the first steps of mankind to another world. Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin left instruments and scientific equipment, a readable board: "We came with the world for all mankind," and the American flag, which was probably white for about ten decades of severe ultraviolet light.
spray of lunar soil or occasional micrometorist exposure, the Tranquillity base was a virgin time capsule, since astronauts walked away – although this may change when more countries and even commercial companies begin to explore the moon.
This is a very difficult topic, says Michel Henlon, a law professor and expert in space law at the University of Mississipi, who was co-founder of For All Moonkind, a non-profit group protecting historic sites in outer space.
Last week she addressed this issue to the United Nations Organization, in that she believed that the issue was raised for the first time. Addressing the subcommittee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Henlon informed the group that the Apollo 11 landing site is a cultural treasure similar to those of the UNESCO World Heritage Site as the Egyptian Pyramid or the Great Wall of China.
Any nation may appoint a place within its sovereign territory for inclusion in the World Heritage List, she explains. The problem with the moon is that under the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, no nation can claim sovereignty over any space in outer space. Apollo 11 landing site has an unprecedented cultural significance that deserves special recognition.
The question is whether the countries will be ready to agree on such a small step to save, or they will not be able to set a precedent for the introduction of the part. Her group also wants the group to similarly recognize the Soviet spacecraft Luna 2, an object created by people who has ever reached another heavenly body. He is still sitting on the surface of the moon after touching 60 years ago in September.
Henlon says that a delegate from China addressed her right after her speech to learn more and that her organization would do additional work at the next meeting of the subcommittee in April. . Its purpose is to get some kind of declaration when the full space committee meets in June.
"I have a very strong team of lawyers from many different countries that will be there in April, and I think we can really make very good efforts on this," says Henlon. "What we have to do is find one country. , who wants to sponsor our mission, if you like. "
" I think they have as good a chance as anyone, "says Lisa Westwood, a California archaeologist at Chico University who was interested in preserving the history of the moon near ten years. "I think their hearts are in the right place, and they work very, very azhko to try to reach some international consensus. They certainly talk to the right people. "
Efforts to preserve historical places on the moon are returned, at least until 1998. It was then that Beth O'Leary taught a seminar at the University of the State of New Mexico on federal and state laws of the United States , which protects archaeological and historical resources. The student, Ralph Gibson, asked if the federal conservation laws were applied to the moon. "You know, you get a good question, you have to run with him," recalls O'Leary, Gibson and more One postgraduate student received a grant for studying this subject I
So far, the early advocates of historical conservation on the moon have received artifacts and discoveries at Tranquility's base in the state registries of history in New Mexico and California. "This is a symbolic one," says O'Leary. "She recognizes the history of space and archaeological data on the history of outer space."
The Outer Space Treaty, she notes, states that countries retain ownership of any objects or structures they put on the Moon so that no one, for example, could escape the US flag. But this will not protect the imprints of Apollo astronauts.
"I do not think that anyone could argue that this is not important, an important event that destroys the Earth in the history of mankind," says O'Leary. and all humanity took part. "She was a student of student youth who lived in the host family in Norway when the astronauts landed on July 20, 1969. She remembers watching the news on black and white television when the speakers spoke
nobody tried to protect any cultural artifacts on the moon before, it is unclear exactly how to preserve them .
But some reasoning has already entered into this, because the group, formed by NASA, has made recommendations that "space development" can volunteers to follow if they dare to moon.Reconsibilities establish areas around fragile sites that, for example, should not be introduced with rovers, and warns of physical contact with any equipment without the prior permission of NASA.
These recommendations were created in response to The Google Lunar X Prize, launched in 2007, offered a first prize money prize, which successfully landed a moon spacecraft. He offered a huge bonus if a spacecraft could transfer images or videos from one of the several Apollo landing sites that caused some experts' anxiety through unintentional destruction.
competing for the Google Lunar X Prize, – recalls Philip Metzger, a planetary scientist who now works at the University of Central Florida. At that time, Metzger was at NASA, studying the effects of an explosion from the moon landing of Apollo, and he and his colleagues found that landings create an amazing blast of sand and dust. "[The companies] wanted to visit Apollo during these missions, and they did not want to bribe and destroy the sites of Apollo."
Metzger knew that this was a real danger. In 1969, Apollo 12 astronauts landed at a distance of 160 meters from the spacecraft Surveyor III, which was on the moon for several years. Astronauts came up and removed some parts of the craft to bring them home for analysis to see how the moon environment was influenced by the environment. "Well, the main thing that we discovered is that it was sandblasting like crazy from the Apollo moon module landing," says Metzger.
It was a shock, since NASA believed that it landed far enough to make the spacecraft robot safe. But Surveyor III suffered so much damage that it changed the color, turning from white to brown, as tiny bits of lunar soil fell into its surface. And Surveyor III was even devoid of the worst damage since it was in the crater and protected from the main spray garbage.
Since then, Metzger says, they have analyzed videos showing that Apollo landings could throw off gravel and even the size of high-speed rocks. "If you landed at a distance of 100 meters from something sensible, you could have had a bad day, having hit it with a rock of 50 miles per hour," he says.
In fact, computer simulation shows that it is impossible to have a large landing on the moon without causing a certain degree of damage from dust and rock causing the wave – and this made it difficult for the NASA group to make recommendations on how future missions should go forward, without damaging the treasures of Apollo. "Every time you land on the Moon for 100 kilometers, you are going to cause some damage," says Matthew, "and therefore we are faced with this impossible question of how far it is possible to send a missile to the Moon
The group eventually dwelt on the recommendations "It's just the number that we did, because we could not do better at that time."
He says, "It's just the number that we did, because we could not do better at that time." , which is important to keep access to the sites of Apollo, from scientific and scientific ulturnyh reasons, thus protecting them from excessive damage. "We would like people visiting these sites and sent back images. Not only for scientific value, but also for cultural value, so that people can see again that we have visited the Moon, and this will inspire people to come back
Archaeologists and historians were busy drawing up lists of every human artifact on the moon, and a lot of them. Apollo's astronauts have reduced the weight of their lifts by throwing away all the doors they do not need before they go home: hammers, towels, cameras. "They created, right before they left, a throw area, scattered artifacts," says Westwood, who says that more than 100 objects were inventoried at the Tranquility Base
YouTube believes that One of the most interesting scientifically interesting items from Apollo landing sites is bags with human excrements. he says. "These are samples of human biological material, including the microbial life that we placed on the Moon a decade ago. We would like to know if anything survives?" "It's like archeology on Earth. It's not about putting something in and blocking it and throwing away the key," says Henlon. "This ensures that the first people get to these sites so that we can bring out all the science that we can, and then save what should be kept for the descendants."
"Print boot, however, needs to be protected. While a car lift burst may erase the very first impressions of Armstrong in the lunar soil, satellite images show that some tracks are still farther from the spacecraft. Hanlon would even like to see some structure built up over them to create a peculiar museum of lunar history.