SpaceX, an aerospace company founded by Elon Mus, is working diligently on a wildly ambitious project: to permanently settle people on Mars.
To make this vision a reality, Muska Company is developing a colossal, completely re-launching system called Starship
Star ship is supposed to be a 180-foot spacecraft that will ride in orbit at the top of Super Heavy, a rocket carrier of about 220 feet in height, according to the latest Muska descriptions.
A spacecraft is designed to be charged in a low Earth orbit in order to launch 100 passengers and more than 100 tons of cargo simultaneously on Mars.
But the success or failure of the launching system – and as a consequence ̵
One change involves the construction of a spacecraft from stainless steel alloys instead of carbon composites
But the most surprising shift, according to aerospace industry experts, is how the Star Ship will try to avoid burning in the atmosphere of Mars and The earth
Instead of relying on thousands of heavy ceramic tiles to shie a stellar ship from the heat, like NASA with its space shuttle, Musk says that the spacecraft "pumps" rocket fuel through tiny pores to cool itself. while he plows through atmospheric gases, would prevent the ship from collapse.
But it's possible SpaceX to remove the launch system of this unprecedented size and design remains invisible, says Walt Enhelund, an aerospace engineer and director of NASA's Langley Space Technology and Research Directorate.
Introduction, descent and landing are what NASA caused a decade. We spent a lot of time and paid a lot of attention to how we can do it on Mars, "Engeland Business Insider said.
"We landed on the metric point of the Curiosity rover – this is the greatest thing that we have ever laid on the surface of Mars."
Going from the Martian landing, the work of a car size to a ship of building size filled with people, Engelund said, – "a couple of orders" – about 100 times – is more difficult than landing Curiosity, which, in his opinion, "is one of the most difficult things we've ever done at NASA. "
"It will not be easy for us or SpaceX," Engelund said.
vy-metal rocket ship
Musk believes that he can build a self-sufficient city on the red planet 2050 . He wants individual tickets to Mars to be as cheap as a home on Earth, and for return journeys to be free.
The Star-Super Heavy Start System is the way Musk plans to achieve this goal, and he said transition to stainless steel alloys is a way to lower costs and build a system faster.
"The star ship will look like liquid silver," Musk said of the change in December, adding that the ship would have
In an interview with popular mechanics Musk explained that steel was about 67 times cheaper than light but lightweight carbon fiber composites, which SpaceX planned to be used in September. Steel is also easier to operate than carbon fiber, allows faster prototyping, and gets better before intense heating.
More than that, Musk said, the strength of steel was "increased by 50%" when it touches ultracold liquids, including cryogenic methane and oxygen that a Star Ship can use to move through space.
The problem with steel, however, is that the material is dense and heavy. At least one early version of the General Dynamics Atlas missile, made of metal, is under its own weight in the start-up panel.
But Musk suggested that the use of steel in SpaceX would be very different and would make Starship more rigorous, more durable and less difficult. In the end, he said, changing the material will improve the performance of the missile ship over the old design.
"I am sure that the ship of stainless steel will be lighter than modern aluminum or carbon fiber, due to strength to weight and temperature
But, just as hard as steel, it is not invincible, especially when it forms a skin Illustration of the future SpaceX spacecraft and the Super Heavy carrier rocket (© Kimi Talvitie) Illustration of the future SpaceX spacecraft and the Super Heavy carrier rocket.
A stellar ship could penetrate the atmosphere of Mars and Earth by 19,000 km / h . With such speed, Mus said that some parts of the underwater edge of the vessel, such as the nose, could have been exposed to a temperature of about 2700 degrees Fahrenheit.
This is enough heat to break the steel alloy that Musk said SpaceX. For the outer skin of Starship, the material, which is called 310S, is often exhibited as heat-resisting metal, since it contains a lot of chromium and nickel.
(This does not look like steel used in kitchen utensils and frying pans.) But the steel 310S still starts to react with oxygen and roasts about 2000 degrees and melts at about 2400.
A rocket ship needs protection from intense heat. That is why Mus's plans call the body of the Star ship to cool itself using liquid fuel during landing.
Musk said Popular Mechanics that he decided to abandon thermal tiles, similar to cosmic ones. to protect the weight and to avoid the risk that a damaged or lost tile can compromise the heat shield.
Instead, he explained, the star ship "bleeds" or the rocket fuel potion from the small openings in his steel skin, and that the liquid layer will be worn
"On the winding side, what I want to do is the world's first regenerative Thermal shield. The dual stainless steel shell is like a stainless steel sandwich, "Musk said.
"You pass either fuel or water into b between a sandwich layer and then you have micro perforations on the outside – very small perforations – and you essentially bleed the water, or you could bleed the fuel through a micro perforation
He added that the thermal shield would make a double bond by strengthening the stellar body of the Star ship.
"As far as I know, this has never been suggested before. Experts told Business Insider that Musk is right , that no spaceship did not go into orbit and did not return to The earth with such a thermal shield, but the concept of sweating or "transpiration" thermal protection is not new, and this
Transpirational cooling for men of the moon and ICBM
Transpirational or "active" cooling occurred over millions of years in the form of mammalian skin when the temperature of the human body rises too high, for example, microscopic pores pushed out sweat These liquids then evaporates to remove excess heat and prevent overheating.
As for spacecraft for sweating, NASA began playing with a naturally-cooled cooling system prior to landing astronauts on the Moon.
Transpirational cooling is not new.
The only patent filed by NASA in 1965, suggested the use of urine astronauts to cool the thermal shield at the bottom of the space capsule.
In 2006, the space agency spent at least $ 70,000 on studies of the inflatable, cooled transpiration of a thermal shield that could help land-based spacecraft on Mars.
The "Potato" spacecraft also played its role in the race of the Cold War armed forces. Test protection – A transpirationally cooled nasal tip for returned vehicles.
Such vehicles return to space on intercontinental ballistic missiles, return to Earth's atmosphere thousands of miles per hour and strike nuclear warheads. 19659002] However, according to historic US Air Force records, the project was canceled later in the 1970s due to limited funding and "design problems that damaged development."
Information on the problems associated with protective transpirational thermal shields is mainly classified.
But George Herbert, an aerospace engineer who explored the use of space launch vehicles for vehicles, told Business Insider in an e-mail message that "reported and known issues include locked holes for transpiration."
In other words, the problem with which adolescent skin often encounters: clogged pores.
Several experts told Business Insider that they are concerned about the problem of blocking the design of the Starship thermal shield.
Dwayne Day, who helped investigate the loss of the NASA Columbia space shuttle and his crew, imagined that one irritating common scenario with which stars would have encountered anywhere on Earth launch.
"What to do if a bird fires on your rocket and it connects several holes, and then, when the thing returns, no coolant does not come out of these holes?" The day was written in an e-mail to Business Insider.
Engelund said that he saw problems with clogged coolant systems in NASA's hypersonic aerodynamic tunnels.
During such experiments, large-scale models of vehicles in the tunnel – which could explode the air thousands of kilometers per hour – explore how they perform. that The stairs are running on the heat shields that pump the liquid through the channels only under the model skin to cool it, but not all the models survived.
"I've seen cases where you get one clogged canal … And it will immediately lead to burn-out," Engelund said. "The model will disappear in a hypersonic aerodynamic tube, it's almost evaporating, it has so much energy and so much heat."
Musk said that the use of methane as a coolant may be better than water. can counteract the intuitive application to fix freezing and block the cooling channels, "he said but Engelund also sees problems with the methane option. Under the influence of high temperatures, carbon atoms in hydrocarbon fuels (for example, methane) can be "cooled" or glued and converted into solids. Such fragments can block small structures, such as pores.
"I would be very worried about this," Engelund said, adding that one more major concern would be the impurities in the fuel, which could also lead to slaughter.
to resolve these issues, Engelund said, one could simply add more time than it seems necessary, "only if a small percentage of perforations is clogged, or the channels flowing through the coolant, to these perforations."
bird droppings and litter, there is a fine dust that blows through Mars. It can fall into the pores that flow from fossil stellar ships, and it can be difficult to locate and eliminate these blockages while staying on the red planet.
"Inspection and certification, in general, would be a problem for large such large-scale systems – especially on Mars, where you do not have access to large goats or towers to climb and check," Engelund said.
"I think , you could use unmanned airplanes.
Is it possible to take a star ship?
Musk shared only pieces of the latest design of a stellar ship and did not introduce the general picture of how he did in the past. (Visualizations shown in this story are like Kimi Talvitie 3D artist.)
– Elon Musk (@elonmusk) January 25, 2019
But Musk said in December that he "will provide a detailed explanation in March / April", pending the successful launch of the prototype of the test bunker "which company builds in Texas.
Meanwhile Mus shared a video (above), which seems to demonstrate the testing of a metal heat shield for Starship. It is still unclear how many SpaceX studies performed the concept of transpirational cooling.
"This is a huge risk if they did not work to qualify and test what they want to do," said Herbert.
If this does not work, Engelund said, this is not necessarily a dead end for the Musc rocket.
"He can say that this is impossible or too expensive for certification or testing, and he may find a better idea," Engelund said.
SpaceX also expects constant changes and changes since engineers are working to make Starship a reality.
"We are using the same fast iteration in the design approach that succeeded in the Falcon 1, Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy and Dragon programs," Business Insider said by email, turning to the latest projects company rocket and space ship.
But SpaceX rejects any comparison between Starship and NASA's interest.
"Interestingly, it advances the boundaries of Mars technology [entry, descent, and landing] in the 1970s, including a parachute-based EDL architecture," SpaceX said.
"We adopt a completely different approach using what we did with Falcon 9 and have ample opportunity to demonstrate it on Earth before flying to Mars.
Despite the high barriers SpaceX faces in its quest to launch and landing on Mars, no expert with whom we talked, said the SpaceX system.
"They surprised a lot of people and have a lot of clever people who work for them, and Elon seems to be truly devoted to the cause," Engelund said. , which we could do with them.
This article was off Business Insider Published.
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