Pistol shrimp, resembling a shrimp, is a kind of contradiction. At a distance of only a few centimeters, it has one proportional to the size of the claw, and the other is massive, which closes with such force, which causes the shock wave to beat its victim cold. As the two bits of cogs come together, the bubbles are formed, and then quickly destroyed by firing a plasma ball, which in turn produces a flash of light and a temperature of 8,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That's right – an underwater creature that fits in the palm, with a slight push, can lift an explosion of crazy hot bubbles.
Now scientists are learning to possess this terrible power. Today in the journal researchers described in detail how they simulated robot-claws after a plasma pistol-pistol to form their own plasma. This will allow you to find a number of underwater goals as soon as scientists sharpen their version of one of the amazing evolution of the invention.
If all the pistol shrimp has a hammer with a plasma explosion, the whole world is really like a nail. He uses his claw to hunt, of course, but also to interact with short snapshots that measure a crazy 21
Texas Mechanical Engineer David Staak concluded that universality could be useful for people. His team started, while receiving live shrimp with a pistol. Like other arthropods, these animals periodically melt, shed their exoskeleton when they grow. These exoskeleons gave Staack a nice little pan that he then scanned to create a detailed 3D model. He sent it to Shapeways, a commercial printing service, and turned the plastic version of the pistol's plasma gun.
This allowed Staack to experiment with the unique structure of the limb. The upper half of the claws, which the shrimp puts back and closes, includes a "plunger" that enters the "nest" in the lower half of the claws. This creates a fast moving water flow that produces bubbles, also known in this situation as cavitation.
"It reminded us of the mosquitoes," he says. So we actually did some experiments, where we put a little mosquito beneath the water to see how fast the little hand would spin when you made it. We took this idea of the mousetrap and applied it to fix the claw. "
In the Staack version, on top of the claws, its upper half quickly rotates onto a spring-loaded rod, creating enough force to push the plunger into the slot. This action generates a stream of high-speed water, which in turn creates a cavitation bubble, which is initially low pressure and relatively large. But then it begins to collapse.
"Water pushes, and pushes, and pushes, and you get very high pressure and temperature," he adds. The temperatures are so high, because they create a light emitting plasma, which can also be seen when a shrimp gun gets its own claw. "As he tries to push the water back, it sends a shock wave." Just like crustaceans knock out their booty in the wild.
In a laboratory, researchers used high-speed cameras to monitor the jet of water flowing out of their claws. They also depicted the received shock waves, capturing the flash of light as a plasma form.
Pistol shrimps do not have a monopoly on the generation of underwater plasmas. People weld a submerged plasma, known as plasma-arc welding, which produces intense heat. Researchers can also make plasma in water using lasers. The problem is that these tools are ineffective. Using a claw for plasma generation is 10 times more effective than those previously investigated by methods, according to Staack. However, this will require more development on a scale
This can be even more effective, as researchers should not correctly adhere to the biology of pest shrimp. In fact, Staack realized that they could cut the size of the upper bit of the claw. In real pistol shrimp, it is stormy because it contains the mats needed to work the limb. But this robotic version is not limited to this biology.
"The replication of what the animal has done is the first step," says Rachel Crane, a biologist at Stanford University, who helped develop the Ninjabot, a device that recreates a prayer shrimp strike. , which also produces cavitation bubbles. Then you can look at it and understand, yes, I do not need huge gems, and so I can cut this part. Then you can program a better system. "
Researchers may even want to look back to nature for ways to set up a system. Hundreds of pink shrimp roses are rolled into the sea, each with its own unique adapted claws. This and even individuals within differ in their morphology.
"The lining for evolution, the only reason we have to instill shrimp today of all these varied varieties is due to individual variations," says Duke, a biologist at Sheila Patek, who studies the strike of prayer prayer shrimp. Thus, while researchers can make their own tricks to their work, they can also draw inspiration from the inherent variety of pistol shrimp to play with morphological skeletons that are different from what they originally typed in 3D.
Pistol-shrimp-inspired device used in a number of fields. One of the approaches is to use cigars-generated plasma for drilling through the rock, since crustaceans go out in the wild to make a home on a reef. Or, you can use a system for water purification, splitting water into its constituent parts, which forms peroxide. "These peroxides can attack organic pollutants in water," says Staak. "If you are thinking about cleaning up municipal water or sewage treatment, efficiency is becoming very important."
And so pistol shrimp find a few more nails.
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