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Beyond the Hubble Permanent – “The New Age of the Universe”



Hubble's new deep field

“Eventually we reach the limits of our telescopes. Here we measure shadows and look for landmarks among the illusory measurement errors that are somewhat more significant,”

; wrote Edwin Hubble in 1916, the inventor of the famous “constant” that describes how fast the universe is. expands at different distances from a certain point in space, implying the existence of a time scale or era for the universe. New research by a group of astronomers using the new approach, using known distances of 50 galaxies from Earth, has estimated the age of the universe at 12.6 billion years.

Hubble’s figures for today’s rate of expansion do not match the speed expected, given that the universe appeared shortly after the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago. In 2019, using new data from NASA / ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have significantly reduced the likelihood that this discrepancy is the point.

Ghostly mistakes

“The Hubble tension between the early and late universes may be the most exciting event in cosmology in decades,” said Adam Riss, a leading researcher and Nobel laureate at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Johns Hopkins University. “This discrepancy is growing, and now it has reached a point that cannot really be ruled out as a spell. This discrepancy could not have arisen by accident. “

Hubble Reveals Mystery – “New Physics Needed to Explain the Forces That Shaped the Cosmos”

Approaches to the date of the Big Bang and the origin of the universe rely on mathematics and computational modeling, using estimates of the distances of ancient stars, the behavior of galaxies, and the rate of expansion of the universe. The idea is to calculate how long it will take for all objects to return to the beginning.

A recent technique for measuring the age of the universe uses observations of the remnants of radiation from the Big Bang, according to the University of Oregon.

A new approach

The new approach is announced by James Schombert, a professor of physics at the University of Oregon. In a publication published July 17 in the Astronomical Journal, he and his colleagues recalibrated a tool for measuring distance, known as the Tully-Fisher baryon relation regardless of the Hubble constant, which solves the “distance scale problem” known to solve “huge distances to galaxies. and characters that are weak and difficult to calibrate. “

Hubble’s paradox – “Constant in space, not in time”

Schombert’s team listed the Tully-Fisher approach using well-defined distances in a linear calculation of 50 galaxies as benchmarks for measuring the distances of 95 other galaxies. The universe, he noted, is governed by a series of mathematical laws expressed by equations. The new approach more accurately explains the mass and rotating curves of galaxies to convert these equations to numbers such as age and rate of expansion.

Schombert’s approach determines the Hubble constant – the rate of expansion of the universe – 75.1 kilometers per second per megaparsec, giving or taking 2.3. Megaparsec, the total unit of measurement related to space, is equal to one million parsecs. Parsec – about 3.3 light years. All Hubble constant values ​​below 70, his team writes, can be ruled out with 95 percent confidence.

According to Schombert, traditional measurement methods have been set at 75 for the past 50 years, but the CMS calculates a factor of 67. The KMB technique, using different assumptions and computer simulations, should still come to the same estimate, he said. .

The physics of the universe is incomplete

“Tensions in this field arise because there is none,” Schombert said, reflecting on Adam Reyes’s comments. – This difference is far from the errors of observation and has caused a lot of friction in the cosmological community.

Calculations from NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in 2013 set the age of the universe at 13.77 billion years, which is currently the standard model for the Big Bang cosmology. Different Hubble constant values ​​from different methods, as a rule, estimate the age of the universe within 12 billion 14.5 billion years.

“Nothing like ours” – billions of years from now there is a strange new universe

The new study, which is based in part on observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, adds a new element to how calculations can be made to achieve the Hubble constant by introducing a purely empirical method using direct observations to determine the distance to galaxies.

“The value we have gained is a high point of the various schools of cosmology, which shows that our understanding of the physics of the universe is incomplete with hope for new physics in the future,” he said.

The image at the top of the page took researchers at the Canary Institute of Astrophysics for almost three years. This deepest image of the universe, taken from space, restores a large amount of “lost” light around the largest galaxies in the iconic Hubble Ultradeep Field.

Daily Galaxy, Max Goldberg, through the University of Oregon




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