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Home https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ Science https://server7.kproxy.com/servlet/redirect.srv/sruj/smyrwpoii/p2/ An incredible experiment gives mice an infrared vision, and people can be next.

An incredible experiment gives mice an infrared vision, and people can be next.



Special nanoparticles (shown in white) stick to the cores (on the left) and the cones (right) in the photoreceptors of the mice.
Using nanoparticles in the eyes of mice, scientists have been able to see the near-infrared light ̵
1; the length of the wave, which is usually not visible to rodents (or people). This is an extraordinary achievement that has become even more unusual with the realization that such a technique can be used in people.

Of all the wonderful things done by mice in recent years, this latest achievement, described today in the scientific journal Cell, is one of the most science-fiction.

A research group led by Tian Xue from the University of Science and Technology of China and Gan Han from the University of Mass. Health School of Medicine changed the vision of the mice in such a way that they could see the near-infrared light (NIR), in addition to preserving their natural ability to see normal light. This was done by inserting into the eyes of special nanoparticles, the effect of which lasted about 10 weeks and without any serious side effects.

A series of tests showed that the mice did see infrared light, and not some other stimuli. Researchers say that the human eye is not very different from the eyes of mice, which leads to a fantastic prospect of the use of such technology for people. People and mice can see only a limited range within the electromagnetic spectrum, which is indicated by a rainbow-like band. Other animals, including birds, can see ultraviolet (UV) light

Image: Cage

People, like the mouse, have visual access to a limited range of electromagnetic spectrum. The range of invisible wavelengths for a person is enormous, and therefore we can not see anything outside the so-called visible spectrum (wavelengths from 380 to 740 nanometers). Infrared radiation exists as longer waves along the spectrum, ranging from about 800 nm to a full millimeter. Past infrared waves are even longer wavelengths of microwaves and radio waves

In the world, whether people, hot soup, or even something cold, like a cube of ice, emit infrared radiation. warm. Mammals, like humans and mice, can not see NIRs, but we have technology, namely night-vision glasses or thermal imagers that can turn this invisible spectrum into the format we see.

New technology used on mice does something similar, but instead of relying on nasal technology, scientists have entered the biology of business.

and Gang developed special nanoparticles that are capable of functioning in previous eye structures of rodents. Droplets of liquid containing small particles were injected directly into their eyes, where, using special anchors, they adhered tightly to the photoreceptor cells. Photoreceptor cells – rods and cones – usually absorb the wavelengths of the incoming visible light, which the brain interprets as a sight. In the experiment, however, the newly introduced nanoparticles converted the input NIR into the visible wavelength, which the mouse brain then was able to handle as visual information (in this case they saw NIR as greenish light). The nanoparticles were held for almost two months, allowing mice to see both NIRs and visible light with minimal side effects.

Graphical representation of the process in action. When infrared light (red) reaches a photocell (light green circle), nanoparticles (pink circles) turn light on visible green light. In essence, the nanoparticles in the photoreceptor cells served as a transducer or transducer for infrared light. Longer infrared wavelengths were trapped in the retina by nanoparticles, which then transmitted them as shorter wavelengths within visible light. The rods and cones that were built to absorb shorter wavelengths, thus, could accept this signal, and then send this converted information to the visual cortex for processing. In particular, the particles introduced absorbed NIRs at about 980 nm in wavelength and converted to light at 535 nm. For mice it was translated into the vision of infrared light as a green color. The result was similar to observing the NIR with night vision eyepieces, except that the mice were able to maintain their normal appearance of visible light. As it was noted, the effect was temporary, which lasted for several weeks, and some mice felt a cloudy cornea which quickly became clearer.

To really prove this method, Tian and Gang have created a series of tests and experiments.

For example, the pupils of other mice were expanded under the influence of NIR, while pupils of mice did not do anything else. And when exclusively exposed to NIR, measuring the electrical activity of the brain in other mice showed that the eyes and the visual cortex functioned as if in the presence of visible light.

Behavioral tests also showed that the method works. Mice located in the Y-shaped water labyrinth were trained to recognize the location of a hidden platform to search for an asylum as indicated by a NIR-lit display. In the tests, the mice inserted consistently located the platform, while the mice, without the others, swam randomly in a labyrinth. Another test included a box with two compartments: one completely dark without any light and one with NIR. Mice, like night creatures, tend to the darkness. In the tests, other mouse mice spent more time in a dark compartment, while non-mouse mice did not have the benefits.

"These large experiments leave no doubt that infrared-sensitive mouse nanoparticles are able to detect infrared light and receive visual information from Vladimir J. Kefalov, professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at the University of Washington, St. Louis, who was not related to a new study, Gizmodo reported.

In a press release, Tian said that nanoparticles cling to both rods and cones and are activated with close-to-infrared light, so "we believe this technology is so it will work in human eyes, not only for the creation of a supervisor, but also for therapeutic solutions in the lack of vision of a red man's color. "In an interview, Cell argued:

Unlike mice, humans and other primates have a structure, which is called a fovea in the retina, which mediates the central vision of high severity.In the human fossa, the density of the cones is much higher than that of the rods, while in the mouse's mesh the number of rods predominates everywhere … Since the cones have different spectra and the sensitivity of intensity to light is comparable Oh, with rods, we may need to fine-tune the UCNP radiation spectrum to more effectively activate a certain type of cone.

According to Tian, ​​treatment should be modified for humans to work, but a new experiment shows that it is within range. Kefalov said that the potential for applying such a concept in people is real and exciting, but he warns that we still have to go a long way.

"The authors demonstrate that one-time interaction with nanoparticles does not have a long-term negative effect on the retina of the mouse," said Kefalov. "However, it is not clear whether a practical infrared vision of people will be required from repeated interventions, and if so, whether such chronic treatment will have an adverse long-term effect on the structure and function of our eyes."

to see the infrared light seems to be science fiction and the material of transhumanistic fantasies (raising a hand), but this would be a definitely useful feature. We will be able to see a variety of things outside of our normal visual range – and we would actually have a built-in night view. As Tian Cologne explained:

Human beings tried to develop new technologies that would allow abilities that go beyond our natural abilities. Visible light, which can be perceived by a natural vision of a person, simply takes a very small proportion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves are longer or shorter than our visible light, have much more information … Depending on the material, the object can also have a clear absorption and reflection of the NIR. We could not disclose this information with our bare eyes.

Another interesting thing about this potential improvement is that it does not require a person to have cumbersome and energy-consuming equipment, such as the above-mentioned night vision goggles. It also does not require genetic manipulation. The military will most likely be interested in this work.

Dayong Jin of the School of Mathematics and Physics at Sydney University of Technology described the new work as "very innovative and inspiring." Dayong, who was not involved in the study, said that his best "This work is the first demonstration of implanted and" wearable "optical nano devices. He said that it is important that the mice did not show inflammation or cell death, but it is possible that some Cells sucked nanoparticles, prospect "

Similarly, Kefalov was shocked by the study, saying that" the authors did a surprisingly good job characterizing the effects of infra-red sensitive nanoparticles on the visual functions of the mice, "adding that it was" innovative "the work demonstrates a brilliant and powerful method of increasing the ability of the visual system to detect light outside of the natural visible range. Surprisingly, "the nanoparticles did not seem to interfere with the normal function of photoreceptors in visible light. As to whether this technique can be used to correct disturbed vision, such as color blindness, it's less clear, he said.

"Since the method relies on the innate ability of photoreceptors to detect and amplify light signals, using this approach to overcome the impaired photoreceptor function will require the development of additional steps beyond the limits of the detection of light outside the visible range," said Kefalov

Tian and Gang would like to improve the technique of organic nanoparticles, which consist of approved FDA compounds, which could lead to even more bright infrared vision. They would also like to tailor the technique to make it more sensitive to human biology. Optimistically, where this technology is headed, Tian and Gang have already announced a patent application that is relevant to their work.

I can already imagine the TV commercials: "Ask your doctor if the near infrared vision is right for you."

[Cell]


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