Most of the changes that took place in Kelly's body, compared to his identical brother, Mark, on Earth, returned to normal as soon as he returned from the space station. The results of the study indicate that a healthy person may be "mostly stable" throughout the year in space.
At the same time, the results are issued only in time to the 58th anniversary of the first flight of the space spacecraft of the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
mission or mission in deep space, like Mars. Molecular, physiological and behavioral changes were divided into groups of low, medium and high risk. Scott's changes in body weight and microbials were considered low risk. Changes in collagen regulation and blood vessel fluid management were mediocre, and genomic instability was considered as a potentially high risk.
However, there are limiting factors for the study, the researchers said.
The study only reflects Scott and Mark Kelly, and the results will not be confirmed by other astronauts, explains the researcher. Scott was still in the protective shield of the Earth's magnetic field at the space station and was not bombarded with deep cosmic radiation.
"It is impossible to attribute the causality to a space flight against a coincidental event," the research confirms, so researchers consider their work to be a "hypothesis that forms and defines a framework" that will benefit from further research in the future. But they also believe that it is "the dawn of human genomics in space," according to Dr. Andy Feinberg, Chief Researcher and Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
"The twin study was an important step in understanding epigenetics and gene expression in human space flight," said J. Headquarters. "It helped to report the need for personalized medicine and its role in maintaining healthy astronauts during in-depth study of space, when NASA goes forward to the moon and goes further to Mars."
19659002] Year in space has caused thickening of the Scott's carotid artery, damage to DNA, changes in genes expression, retina thickening, intestinal microbial bias, decreased cognitive abilities and structural changes at the ends of chromosomes, which are called telomeres. But he did not change or mutate his DNA.
Getting the flu in space also worked the way it was on Earth. Nutrition and exercise during stay at the station caused weight loss and increased folic acid, causing vital production of erythrocytes
Changes in gene expression were associated with DNA repair systems and the immune system. More than 1,000 genes have changed as Scott arrived in space. Some changes were expected, like those associated with the formation of bones or DNA repair, because cosmonauts lose bone density in space, and radiation damage to DNA. But changes in the genes of mitochondria and the immune system, which help to produce energy and protect the body, indicate that long-term space flight increases the burden on the body. There is also evidence of cellular stress
This shows that Scott's immune system was in high readiness in response to its ecological changes, researchers said.
"Gene expression has greatly changed," said Christopher Mason, one of the research authors and associate professor of physiology and biophysics at Weill Cornell Medicine. "Although many changes have changed since Scott returned to Earth, some remained, including cognitive deficits, DNA damage, and some changes in the activation of T cells. We still do not know whether these changes are good or bad." The body reacts, but the genes are perturbed, so we want to know why and track them to see how long they are. "
There was also a more dramatic change of genes during the last half of the mission compared to the first one.
Looking at the epigens of Scott and Mark, they found only less than 5% difference. Epigenes are chemical compounds that act as switches to enable or exclude genes in DNA. Epigenetic changes are changes in the activity of genes that do not change the genetic code. For Scott, the changes concerned the reactions of his immune system and biochemical markers attached to inflammation. In the space, the caps at the ends of the chromosomes, called telomeres, lengthen in Scott's leukocytes. Of course, telomere length changes are associated with aging or illness, and they are reduced to age. Extension was not expected. Telomeres act as biomarkers for health and, now, long-term risks of space flight. Returning to Earth, Scott's Telomeres quickly shrunk and even lost their length compared to how they were before he went to the space station. This could have a negative effect on its cellular health, researchers said. Now he has shorter telomeres. Short-term telomeres are associated with a higher risk of accelerated aging, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers, said Susan Bailey, research author and professor at the State University of Colorado
. His nerve retina is thickened, and the folds appear in the layer of the vasculature around the eye. Changes were made with a clear vision and were noted by other male astronauts due to the upshot of a fail-safe fluid. This is called neuro-ocular syndrome or SANS. The same displacement of the fluid caused stretching of the jugular vein of the neck, a greater cardiac output and thickening of the skin of the forehead. This exerts deep pressure on the veins, eyes and blood vessels and causes drainage.
Liquid has changed its influence not only on his eyes but also on the cardiovascular system. The wall of the carotid artery Scott was thickened at the beginning of the mission and remained so until the end of the flight. The levels of collagen in his blood are shifted, which was correlated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Those returned to the baseline when he returned.
Although the intestinal microbe of Scott was displaced, his variety was not that which was encouraging to researchers. Comparison of Scott's samples before, during and after the flight was more valuable than comparing them with Mark. Although in the cosmos, the number of intestinal bacteria called Firmicutes increased, and bacteria Bacteroidetes in the intestine decreased. Both categories contain a mixture of good and bad bacteria.
Researchers believe that this shift causes zero gravity. But the balance returned to normal when Scott returned to Earth. Countermeasures that will help maintain this balance in the future may include prior, pro- or postbiotics.
The cognitive velocity and precision of Scott declined in flight after tests and remained up to six months upon return . There was also an increase in the immune response during the landing of Scott on Earth, which coincided with such a tense event. And its lactic acid level was higher during the first 15 days and the final 14 days of travel, although the exact trigger was not identified. But almost all returned to normal, stable, or baseline six months after Scott returned to Earth.
"He returned to virtually normal," said Dr. Mike Snyder, researcher and director of the Department of Genetics at Stanford University.
Protecting Health of Astronauts
Human Studies Program Prior to His Mission. Twins of both astronauts, but a unique opportunity was presented when Scott planned to spend a year on a space station, and his brother remained on Earth. Their identical genes provide an ideal comparison for researchers. And in the future, NASA offers more than one-year missions to continue this kind of research and to prepare for longer missions to Mars or the Moon.
After more than 50 years of human flight in outer space, researchers are aware of some of the risks posed by the human body in zero gravity. Astronauts must deal with stressful surroundings, noise, isolation, circadian rhythm disturbances, radiation irradiation, and fluid displacement upward when traveling in the opposite position on a solid ground. loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting.
Over time, astronauts who stay at the station for six months or more may experience weakening and loss of bones and muscles atrophy. Astronauts also experience loss of blood volume, weakened immune system and cardiovascular decontamination, as the floating takes a bit of effort and the heart should not work so hard to pump blood. Scott and other astronauts in the late 40's and 50's also complained that their vision had changed somewhat. Some of them demanded glasses in flight.
Continuing, NASA focuses on addressing key threats to people traveling in space: isolation and radiation, radiation, distance from the earth, hostile or enclosed environments, and gravitational fluctuations.
The Consequences on Earth, too
Only have implications for astronauts. Genetic changes and irradiation are also occurring in cancer patients. This study shows how a healthy body reacts and adapts to stress that can separate how the body reacts to other stressors, cancer or infections.
In addition, the study sheds light on individual responses to influenza vaccines, environmental changes in gene expression, diseases associated with intracranial pressure, visual disturbances, and cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis.
continue his work by studying astronauts on six-month and one-year missions. Understanding the individual factors of telomeres can show what affects their dynamics. "Twins' research has demonstrated at the molecular level the stability and reliability of how one human body adapted to the space flight environment," said Jen Fogarthy, chief scientist at NASA. Human Research Program. "This study was a step towards future biology research, focusing on molecular changes and how they can predict the health and productivity of astronauts, which opened the door to new research strategies that are already advancing in other studies."